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## Recipe to create Common Core Math 1, 2, and 3 for High School

17 Sep

Ingredients:

All topics in Algebra 1, Geometry, and Algebra 2

Directions:

1.  Dissect all topics in Algebra 1, Geometry, and Algebra 2 and break down into individual objectives.

2.  Rewrite each objective so that it reads like it is more in-depth , remove most of the algorithmic processes, and use the word “modeling” as much as possible.

Note:  If done correctly, you should now have about 200 objectives

3.  Make a chart that lists all objectives and pick different subsets of the 200 objectives and put them under labels for Common Core 1, 2, and 3.

4.  Be sure that each state and each district/county within a state has a different subset of objectives for each course so students can never successfully move between states or counties.

5.  Also be sure each course has a set of 5 disjoint groups with objectives under each group such as Algebra, Geometry, Probability,Trigonometry etc.  so that students jump from topic to topic rather than learn in a linear fashion.  Math is NOT allowed to be linear,  it should remain disjointed as much as possible.

6.  Now you have Common Core 1, Common Core 2, and Common Core 3.

Other notes for a successful recipe:

*  Try not to use textbooks

* Don’t give students any reference material to follow that relates to each topic as they do their homework every night

* Don’t align assessments with the standards or let a third party make assessments for you

* Make the objectives so difficult to follow that parents don’t have a clue what their students are doing and can’t provide support at home

Example of Chart of Creating Common Core

One states choices for their objectives

Another states choices for their objectives

(Examples of disconnect:  Illinois – circles are covered in CCM2, in North Carolina, circles are covered in CCM3.  Some states are covering Exponential functions in CCM1, others are waiting until CCM2.  Some are doing more Geometry in CCM1, others in CCM2, and some save most of the Geometry for CCM3!  Other states are still following Common Core but on a traditional path which means using the Common Core objectives but within the context of Algebra 1, Geometry, and Algebra 2 .)

This is my lovely state – they won’t give me a link but a download only so I posted their whole curriculum here.

Math I

The Real Number System    N-RN

Extend the properties of exponents to rational exponents.

N-RN.1 Explain how the definition of the meaning of rational exponents follows from extending the properties of integer exponents to those values, allowing for a notation for radicals in terms of rational exponents. For example, we define 51/3 to be the cube root of 5 because we want (51/3)3 = 5(1/3)3 to hold, so (51/3)3 must equal 5.

N-RN.2 Rewrite expressions involving radicals and rational exponents using the properties of exponents.

Note: At this level, focus on fractional exponents with a numerator of 1.

Quantities       N-Q

Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems.

N-Q.1Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays.

N-Q.2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling.

N-Q.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities.

Seeing Structure in Expressions      A-SSE

Interpret the structure of expressions.

A-SSE.1Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context.

1. Interpret parts of an expression, such as terms, factors, and coefficients.
2. Interpret complicated expressions by viewing one or more of their parts as a single entity. For example, interpret P(1+r)n as the product of P and a factor not depending on P.

Note:  At this level, limit to linear expressions, exponential expressions with integer exponents and quadratic expressions.

A-SSE.2Use the structure of an expression to identify ways to rewrite it. For example, see x4 – y4 as (x2)2 – (y2)2, thus recognizing it as a difference of squares that can be factored as (x2 – y2)(x2 + y2).

Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems.

A-SSE.3 Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression.

1. Factor a quadratic expression to reveal the zeros of the function it defines.

Note:  At this level, the limit is quadratic expressions of the form ax2 + bx + c.

Arithmetic with Polynomials & Rational Expressions       A-APR

Perform arithmetic operations on polynomials.

A-APR.1 Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers, namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication; add, subtract, and multiply polynomials.

Note: At this level, limit to addition and subtraction of quadratics and multiplication of linear expressions.

Creating Equations   A-CED

Create equations that describe numbers or relationships.

A-CED.1Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential functions.

Note:  At this level, focus on linear and exponential functions.

A-CED.2Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales.

Note:  At this level, focus on linear, exponential and quadratic.  Limit to situations that involve evaluating exponential functions for integer inputs.

A-CED.3Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions as viable or non- viable options in a modeling context. For example, represent inequalities describing nutritional and cost constraints on combinations of different foods.

Note:  At this level, limit to linear equations and inequalities.

A-CED.4Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. For example, rearrange Ohm’s law V = IR to highlight resistance R.

Note:  At this level, limit to formulas that are linear in the variable of interest, or to formulas involving squared or cubed variables.

Reasoning with Equations & Inequalities   A-REI

Understand solving equations as a process of reasoning and explain the reasoning.

A-REI.1 Explain each step in solving a simple equation as following from the equality of numbers asserted at the previous step, starting from the assumption that the original equation has a solution. Construct a viable argument to justify a solution method.

Solve equations and inequalities in one variable.

A-REI.3Solve linear equations and inequalities in one variable, including equations with coefficients represented by letters.

Solve systems of equations.

A-REI.5 Prove that, given a system of two equations in two variables, replacing one equation by the sum of that equation and a multiple of the other produces a system with the same solutions.

A-REI.6Solve systems of linear equations exactly and approximately (e.g., with graphs), focusing on pairs of linear equations in two variables.

Represent and solve equations and inequalities graphically.

A-REI.10Understand that the graph of an equation in two variables is the set of all its solutions plotted in the coordinate plane, often forming a curve (which could be a line).

Note:  At this level, focus on linear and exponential equations.

A-REI.11 Explain why the x-coordinates of the points where the graphs of the equations y = f(x) and

y = g(x) intersect are the solutions of the equation f(x) = g(x); find the solutions approximately, e.g., using technology to graph the functions, make tables of values, or find successive approximations. Include cases where f(x) and/or g(x) are linear, polynomial, rational, absolute value, exponential, and logarithmic functions.

Note:  At this level, focus on linear and exponential functions.

A-REI.12Graph the solutions to a linear inequality in two variables as a half- plane (excluding the boundary in the case of a strict inequality), and graph the solution set to a system of linear inequalities in two variables as the intersection of the corresponding half-planes.

Interpreting Functions          F-IF

Understand the concept of a function and use function notation.

F-IF.1Understand that a function from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. If f is a function and x is an element of its domain, then f(x) denotes the output of f corresponding to the input x. The graph of f is the graph of the equation y = f(x).

F-IF.2Use function notation, evaluate functions for inputs in their domains, and interpret statements that use function notation in terms of a context.

Note:  At this level, the focus is linear and exponential functions.

F-IF.3 Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers. For example, the Fibonacci sequence is defined recursively by f(0) = f(1) = 1, f(n+1) = f(n) + f(n-1) for n ≥ 1.

Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context.

F-IF.4For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity.

Note:  At this level, focus on linear, exponential and quadratic functions; no end behavior or periodicity.

F-IF.5 Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes. For example, if the function h(n) gives the number of person-hours it takes to assemble n engines in a factory, then the positive integers would be an appropriate domain for the function.

Note:  At this level, focus on linear and exponential functions.

F-IF.6Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph.

Note:  At this level, focus on linear functions and exponential functions whose domain is a subset of the integers.

Analyze functions using different representations.

F-IF.7Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases.

1. Graph linear and quadratic functions and show intercepts, maxima, and minima.
2. Graph exponential and logarithmic functions, showing intercepts and end behavior, and trigonometric functions, showing period, midline, and amplitude.

Note:  At this level, for part e, focus on exponential functions only.

F-IF.8Write a function defined by an expression in different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain different properties of the function.

1. Use the process of factoring and completing the square in a quadratic function to show zeros, extreme values, and symmetry of the graph, and interpret these in terms of a context.

Note:  At this level, only factoring expressions of the form ax2 + bx +c, is expected. Completing the square is not addressed at this level.

1. Use the properties of exponents to interpret expressions for exponential functions. For example, identify percent rate of change in functions such as y = (1.02)t, y = (0.97)t, y = (1.01)12t, y = (1.2)t/10, and classify them as representing exponential growth or decay.

F-IF.9Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a graph of one quadratic function and an algebraic expression for another, say which has the larger maximum.

Note:  At this level, focus on linear, exponential, and quadratic functions.

Building Functions    F-BF

Build a function that models a relationship between two quantities.

F-BF.1Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities.

1. Determine an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context.
2. Combine standard function types using arithmetic operations.  For example, build a function that models the temperature of a cooling body by adding a constant function to a decaying exponential, and relate these functions to the model.

Note: At this level, limit to addition or subtraction of constant to linear, exponential or quadratic functions or addition of linear functions to linear or quadratic functions.

F-BF.2 Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.

Note: At this level, formal recursive notation is not used. Instead, use of informal recursive notation (such as NEXT = NOW + 5 starting at 3) is intended.

Build new functions from existing functions.

F-BF.3 Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them.

Note: At this level, limit to vertical and horizontal translations of linear and exponential functions. Even and odd functions are not addressed.

Linear, Quadratic, & Exponential Models           F-LE

Construct and compare linear and exponential models and solve problems.

F-LE.1Distinguish between situations that can be modeled with linear functions and with exponential functions

1. Prove that linear functions grow by equal differences over equal intervals, and that exponential functions grow by equal factors over equal intervals.
2. Recognize situations in which one quantity changes at a constant rate per unit interval relative to another.
3. Recognize situations in which a quantity grows or decays by a constant percent rate per unit interval relative to another.

F-LE.2 Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two input-output pairs (include reading these from a table).

F-LE.3 Observe using graphs and tables that a quantity increasing exponentially eventually exceeds a quantity increasing linearly, quadratically, or (more generally) as a polynomial function.

Note:  At this level, limit to linear, exponential, and quadratic functions; general polynomial functions are not addressed.

Interpret expressions for functions in terms of the situation they model.

F-LE.5Interpret the parameters in a linear or exponential function in terms of a context.

Congruence   G-CO

Experiment with transformations in the plane.

G-CO.1 Know precise definitions of angle, circle, perpendicular line, parallel line, and line segment, based on the undefined notions of point, line, distance along a line, and distance around a circular arc.

Note:  At this level, distance around a circular arc is not addressed.

Expressing Geometric Properties with Equations G-GPE

Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically.

G-GPE.4 Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically.  For example, prove or disprove that a figure defined by four given points in the coordinate plane is a rectangle; prove or disprove that the point (1, √3) lies on the circle centered at the origin and containing the point (0, 2).

Note:Conics is not the focus at this level, therefore the last example is not appropriate here.

G-GPE.5 Prove the slope criteria for parallel and perpendicular lines and use them to solve geometric problems (e.g., find the equation of a line parallel or perpendicular to a given line that passes through a given point).

G-GPE.6 Find the point on a directed line segment between two given points that partitions the segment in a given ratio.

Note:  At this level, focus on finding the midpoint of a segment.

G-GPE.7 Use coordinates to compute perimeters of polygons and areas of triangles and rectangles, e.g., using the distance formula.

Geometric Measurement & Dimension       G-GMD

Explain volume formulas and use them to solve problems.

G-GMD.1 Give an informal argument for the formulas for the circumference of a circle, area of a circle, volume of a cylinder, pyramid, and cone.  Use dissection arguments, Cavalieri’s principle, and informal limit arguments.

Note:  Informal limit arguments are not the intent at this level.

G-GMD.3 Use volume formulas for cylinders, pyramids, cones, and spheres to solve problems.*

Note:  At this level, formulas for pyramids, cones and spheres will be given.

Interpreting Categorical & Quantitative Data       S-ID

Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable.

S-ID.1Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots).

S-ID.2Use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data distribution to compare center (median, mean) and spread (interquartile range, standard deviation) of two or more different data sets.

S-ID.3Interpret differences in shape, center, and spread in the context of the data sets, accounting for possible effects of extreme data points (outliers).

Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables.

S-ID.5 Summarize categorical data for two categories in two-way frequency tables. Interpret relative frequencies in the context of the data (including joint, marginal, and conditional relative frequencies). Recognize possible associations and trends in the data.

S-ID.6Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related.

1. Fit a function to the data; use functions fitted to data to solve problems in the context of the data. Use given functions or choose a function suggested by the context. Emphasize linear and exponential models.
2. Informally assess the fit of a function by plotting and analyzing residuals.

Note:  At this level, for part b, focus on linear models.

1. Fit a linear function for a scatter plot that suggests a linear association.

Interpret linear models.

S-ID.7Interpret the slope (rate of change) and the intercept (constant term) of a linear model in the context of the data.

S-ID.8Compute (using technology) and interpret the correlation coefficient of a linear fit.

S-ID 9Distinguish between correlation and causation.

Math II

The Real Number System    N-RN

Extend the properties of exponents to rational exponents.

N-RN.2Rewrite expressions involving radicals and rational exponents using the properties of exponents.

Quantities       N-Q

Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems.

N-Q.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays.

N-Q.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling.

N-Q.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities.

Seeing Structure in Expressions      A-SSE

Interpret the structure of expressions.

A-SSE.1 Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context.

1. Interpret parts of an expression, such as terms, factors, and coefficients.
2. Interpret complicated expressions by viewing one or more of their parts as a single entity. For example, interpret P(1+r)n as the product of P and a factor not depending on P.

Note:  At this level include polynomial expressions

A-SSE.2 Use the structure of an expression to identify ways to rewrite it. For example, see x4 – y4 as

(x2)2 – (y2)2, thus recognizing it as a difference of squares that can be factored as (x2 – y2)(x2 + y2).

Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems.

A-SSE.3 Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression.

1. Use the properties of exponents to transform expressions for exponential functions. For example the expression 1.15t can be rewritten as (1.151/12)12t ≈ 1.01212t to reveal the approximate equivalent monthly interest rate if the annual rate is 15%.

Arithmetic with Polynomials & Rational Expressions       A-APR

Perform arithmetic operations on polynomials.

A-APR.1 Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers, namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication; add, subtract, and multiply polynomials.

Note:  At this level, add and subtract any polynomial and extend multiplication to as many as three linear expressions.

Understand the relationship between zeros and factors of polynomials.

A-APR.3 Identify zeros of polynomials when suitable factorizations are available, and use the zeros to construct a rough graph of the function defined by the polynomial.

Note:  At this level, limit to quadratic expressions.

Creating Equations   A-CED

Create equations that describe numbers or relationships.

A-CED.1 Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential functions.

Note:  At this level extend to quadratic and inverse variation (the simplest rational) functions and use common logs to solve exponential equations.

A-CED.2 Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales.

Note:  At this level extend to simple trigonometric equations that involve right triangle trigonometry.

A-CED.3 Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions as viable or nonviable options in a modeling context. For example, represent inequalities describing nutritional and cost constraints on combinations of different foods.

Note:  Extend to linear-quadratic, and linear–inverse variation (simplest rational) systems of equations.

A-CED.4Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. For example, rearrange Ohm’s law V = IR to highlight resistance R.

Note:  At this level, extend to compound variation relationships.

Reasoning with Equations & Inequalities   A-REI

Understand solving equations as a process of reasoning and explain the reasoning.

A-REI.1Explain each step in solving a simple equation as following from the equality of numbers asserted at the previous step, starting from the assumption that the original equation has a solution. Construct a viable argument to justify a solution method.

Note:  At this level, limit to factorable quadratics.

A-REI.2 Solve simple rational and radical equations in one variable, and give examples showing how extraneous solutions may arise.

Note:  At this level, limit to inverse variation.

Solve equations and inequalities in one variable.

A-REI.4 Solve quadratic equations in one variable.

b.  Solve quadratic equations by inspection (e.g., for x2 = 49), taking square roots, completing the square, the quadratic formula and factoring, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation. Recognize when the quadratic formula gives complex solutions and write them as a ± bi for real numbers a andb.

Note:  At this level, limit solving quadratic equations by inspection, taking square roots, quadratic formula, and factoring when lead coefficient is one.  Writing complex solutions is not expected; however recognizing when the formula generates non-real solutions is expected.

Solve systems of equations.

A-REI.7 Solve a simple system consisting of a linear equation and a quadratic equation in two variables algebraically and graphically. For example, find the points of intersection between the line

y = –3x and the circle x2 + y2 = 3.

Represent and solve equations and inequalities graphically.

A-REI.10 Understand that the graph of an equation in two variables is the set of all its solutions plotted in the coordinate plane, often forming a curve (which could be a line).

Note:  At this level, extend to quadratics.

A-REI.11 Explain why the x-coordinates of the points where the graphs of the equations y = f(x) and

y = g(x) intersect are the solutions of the equation f(x) = g(x); find the solutions approximately, e.g., using technology to graph the functions, make tables of values, or find successive approximations. Include cases where f(x) and/or g(x) are linear, polynomial, rational, absolute value, exponential, and logarithmic functions.

Note:  At this level, extend to quadratic functions.

Interpreting Functions          F-IF

Understand the concept of a function and use function notation.

F-IF.2 Use function notation, evaluate functions for inputs in their domains, and interpret statements that use function notation in terms of a context.

Note:  At this level, extend to quadratic, simple power, and inverse variation functions.

Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context.

F-IF.4 For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity.

Note:  At this level, limit to simple trigonometric functions (sine, cosine, and tangent in standard position)with angle measures of 180  or less.  Periodicity not addressed.

F-IF.5Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes. For example, if the function h(n) gives the number of person-hours it takes to assemble n engines in a factory, then the positive integers would be an appropriate domain for the function.

Note:  At this level, extend to quadratic, right triangle trigonometry, and inverse variation functions.

Analyze functions using different representations.

F-IF.7 Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases.

1. Graph square root, cube root, and piecewise-defined functions, including step functions and absolute value functions.
2. Graph exponential and logarithmic functions, showing intercepts and end behavior, and trigonometric functions, showing period, midline, and amplitude.

Note:  At this level, extend to simple trigonometric functions (sine, cosine, and tangent in standard position)

F-IF.8 Write a function defined by an expression in different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain different properties of the function.

1. Use the process of factoring and completing the square in a quadratic function to show zeros, extreme values, and symmetry of the graph, and interpret these in terms of a context.

Note:  At this level, completing the square is still not expected.

F-IF.9 Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a graph of one quadratic function and an algebraic expression for another, say which has the larger maximum.

Note:  At this level, extend to quadratic, simple power, and inverse variation functions.

Building Functions    F-BF

Build a function that models a relationship between two quantities.

F-BF.1 Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities.

1. Determine an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context.

Note:  Continue to allow informal recursive notation through this level.

1. Combine standard function types using arithmetic operations. For example, build a function that models the temperature of a cooling body by adding a constant function to a decaying exponential, and relate these functions to the model.

Build new functions from existing functions.

F-BF.3 Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, kf(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them.

Note:  At this level, extend to quadratic functions and, kf(x).

Congruence   G-CO

Experiment with transformations in the plane

G-CO.2 Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch).

G-CO.3 Given a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, or regular polygon, describe the rotations and reflections that carry it onto itself.

G-CO.4 Develop definitions of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments.

G-CO.5 Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another.

Understand congruence in terms of rigid motions

G-CO.6 Use geometric descriptions of rigid motions to transform figures and to predict the effect of a given rigid motion on a given figure; given two figures, use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to decide if they are congruent.

G-CO.7 Use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to show that two triangles are congruent if and only if corresponding pairs of sides and corresponding pairs of angles are congruent.

G-CO.8 Explain how the criteria for triangle congruence (ASA, SAS, and SSS) follow from the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions.

Prove geometric theorems

G-CO.10 Prove theorems about triangles. Theorems include: measures of interior angles of a triangle sum to 180°; base angles of isosceles triangles are congruent; the segment joining midpoints of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and half the length; the medians of a triangle meet at a point.

Note:  At this level, include measures of interior angles of a triangle sum to 180° and the segment joining midpoints of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and half the length.

Make geometric constructions

G-CO.13 Construct an equilateral triangle, a square, and a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle.

Similarity, Right Triangles, & Trigonometry         G-SRT

Understand similarity in terms of similarity transformations

G-SRT.1 Verify experimentally the properties of dilations given by a center and a scale factor:

1. A dilation takes a line not passing through the center of the dilation to a parallel line, and leaves a line passing through the center unchanged.
2. The dilation of a line segment is longer or shorter in the ratio given by the scale factor.

Define trigonometric ratios and solve problems involving right triangles

G-SRT.6 Understand that by similarity, side ratios in right triangles are properties of the angles in the triangle, leading to definitions of trigonometric ratios for acute angles.

G-SRT.7 Explain and use the relationship between the sine and cosine of complementary angles.

G-SRT.8 Use trigonometric ratios and the Pythagorean Theorem to solve right triangles in applied problems.

Apply trigonometry to general triangles

G-SRT.9(+) Derive the formula A = 1/2 ab sin(C) for the area of a triangle by drawing an auxiliary line from a vertex perpendicular to the opposite side.

G-SRT.11(+) Understand and apply the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines to find unknown measurements in right and non-right triangles (e.g., surveying problems, resultant forces).

Expressing Geometric Properties with Equations G-GPE

Translate between the geometric description and the equation for a conic section

G-GPE.1 Derive the equation of a circle of given center and radius using the Pythagorean Theorem; complete the square to find the center and radius of a circle given by an equation.

Note:  At this level, derive the equation of the circle using the Pythagorean Theorem.

G-GPE.6 Find the point on a directed line segment between two given points that partitions the segment in a given ratio.

Geometric Measurement and Dimension    G-GMD

Visualize relationships between two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects

G-GMD.4 Identify the shapes of two-dimensional cross-sections of three-dimensional objects, and identify three-dimensional objects generated by rotations of two-dimensional objects.

Modeling with Geometry      G-MG

Apply geometric concepts in modeling situations

G-MG.1 Use geometric shapes, their measures, and their properties to describe objects (e.g., modeling a tree trunk or a human torso as a cylinder).

G-MG.2 Apply concepts of density based on area and volume in modeling situations (e.g., persons per square mile, BTUs per cubic foot).

G-MG.3 Apply geometric methods to solve design problems (e.g., designing an object or structure to satisfy physical constraints or minimize cost; working with typographic grid systems based on ratios).

Making Inferences & Justifying Conclusions         S-IC

Understand and evaluate random processes underlying statistical experiments

S-IC.2 Decide if a specified model is consistent with results from a given data-generating process, e.g., using simulation. For example, a model says a spinning coin falls heads up with probability 0.5. Would a result of 5 tails in a row cause you to question the model?

Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies

S-IC.6 Evaluate reports based on data.

Conditional Probability and the Rules of Probability       S-CP

Understand independence and conditional probability and use them to interpret data

S-CP.1 Describe events as subsets of a sample space (the set of outcomes) using characteristics (or categories) of the outcomes, or as unions, intersections, or complements of other events (“or,” “and,” “not”).

S-CP.2 Understand that two events A and B are independent if the probability of A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities, and use this characterization to determine if they are independent.

S-CP.3 Understand the conditional probability of A given B as P(A and B)/P(B), and interpret independence of A and B as saying that the conditional probability of A given B is the same as the probability of A, and the conditional probability of B given A is the same as the probability of B.

S-CP.4 Construct and interpret two-way frequency tables of data when two categories are associated with each object being classified. Use the two-way table as a sample space to decide if events are independent and to approximate conditional probabilities. For example, collect data from a random sample of students in your school on their favorite subject among math, science, and English. Estimate the probability that a randomly selected student from your school will favor science given that the student is in tenth grade. Do the same for other subjects and compare the results.

S-CP.5 Recognize and explain the concepts of conditional probability and independence in everyday language and everyday situations. For example, compare the chance of having lung cancer if you are a smoker with the chance of being a smoker if you have lung cancer.

Use the rules of probability to compute probabilities of compound events in a uniform probability model

S-CP.6 Find the conditional probability of A given B as the fraction of B’s outcomes that also belong to A, and interpret the answer in terms of the model.

S-CP.7 Apply the Addition Rule, P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A and B), and interpret the answer in terms of the model.

S-CP.8 (+) Apply the general Multiplication Rule in a uniform probability model, P(A and B) = P(A)P(B|A) = P(B)P(A|B), and interpret the answer in terms of the model.

S-CP.9 (+) Use permutations and combinations to compute probabilities of compound events and solve problems.

Math III

The Real Number System    N-RN

Use properties of rational and irrational numbers.

N-RN.3 Explain why the sum or product of two rational numbers is rational; that the sum of a rational number and an irrational number is irrational; and that the product of a nonzero rational number and an irrational number is irrational.

Quantities                                                                                                                                           N-Q

Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems.

N-Q.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays.

N-Q.2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling.

N-Q.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities.

The Complex Number System                                                                                             N-CN

Perform arithmetic operations with complex numbers.

N-CN.1 Know there is a complex number i such that i2 = –1, and every complex number has the form a + bi with a andb real.

N-CN.2 Use the relation i2 = –1 and the commutative, associative, and distributive properties to add, subtract, and multiply complex numbers.

Use complex numbers in polynomial identities and equations.

N-CN.7 Solve quadratic equations with real coefficients that have complex solutions.

N-CN.9 (+) Know the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra; show that it is true for quadratic polynomials.

Seeing Structure in Expressions                                                                                          A-SSE

Interpret the structure of expressions.

A-SSE.1 Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context.

a.  Interpret parts of an expression, such as terms, factors, and coefficients.

1. Interpret complicated expressions by viewing one or more of their parts as a single entity. For example, interpret P(1+r)n as the product of P and a factor not depending on P.

A-SSE.2 Use the structure of an expression to identify ways to rewrite it. For example, see x4 – y4 as (x2)2 – (y2)2, thus recognizing it as a difference of squares that can be factored as (x2 – y2)(x2 + y2).

Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems.

A-SSE.3 Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression.

1. Complete the square in a quadratic expression to reveal the maximum or minimum value of the function it defines.

A-SSE.4 Derive the formula for the sum of a finite geometric series (when the common ratio is not 1), and use the formula to solve problems. For example, calculate mortgage payments.

Arithmetic with Polynomials and Rational Expressions                                                    A-APR

Perform arithmetic operations on polynomials.

A-APR.1 Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers, namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication; add, subtract, and multiply polynomials.

Understand the relationship between zeros and factors of polynomials.

A-APR.2 Know and apply the Remainder Theorem: For a polynomial p(x) and a number a, the remainder on division by x – a is p(a), so p(a) = 0 if and only if (x – a) is a factor of p(x).

A-APR.3 Identify zeros of polynomials when suitable factorizations are available, and use the zeros to construct a rough graph of the function defined by the polynomial.

Use polynomial identities to solve problems.

A-APR.4 Prove polynomial identities and use them to describe numerical relationships. For example, the polynomial identity (x2 + y2)2 = (x2 – y2)2 + (2xy)2 can be used to generate Pythagorean triples.

Rewrite rational expressions.

A-APR.6  Rewrite simple rational expressions in different forms; write a(x)/b(x) in the form q(x) + r(x)/b(x), where a(x), b(x), q(x), and r(x) are polynomials with the degree of r(x) less than the degree of b(x), using inspection, long division, or, for the more complicated examples, a computer algebra system.

A-APR.7  (+) Understand that rational expressions form a system analogous to the rational numbers, closed under addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division by a nonzero rational expression; add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions.

Note:Limit to rational expressions with constant, linear, and factorable quadratic terms.

Creating Equations                                                                                                               A-CEDCreate equations that describe numbers or relationships.

A-CED.1 Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential functions.

A-CED.2 Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales.

A-CED.3 Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions as viable or nonviable options in a modeling context. For example, represent inequalities describing nutritional and cost constraints on combinations of different foods.

A-CED.4Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. For example, rearrange Ohm’s law V = IR to highlight resistance R.

Reasoning with Equations & Inequalities   A-REI

Understand solving equations as a process of reasoning and explain the reasoning.

A-REI.1Explain each step in solving a simple equation as following from the equality of numbers asserted at the previous step, starting from the assumption that the original equation has a solution. Construct a viable argument to justify a solution method.

A-REI.2 Solve simple rational and radical equations in one variable, and give examples showing how extraneous solutions may arise.

Solve equations and inequalities in one variable.

A-REI.4 Solve quadratic equations in one variable.

1. Use the method of completing the square to transform any quadratic equation in x into an equation of the form (xp)2 = q that has the same solutions. Derive the quadratic formula from this form.
2. Solve quadratic equations by inspection (e.g., for x2 = 49), taking square roots, completing the square, the quadratic formula and factoring, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation. Recognize when the quadratic formula gives complex solutions and write them as a ± bi for real numbers a andb.

Represent and solve equations and inequalities graphically.

A-REI.10 Understand that the graph of an equation in two variables is the set of all its solutions plotted in the coordinate plane, often forming a curve (which could be a line).

A-REI.11 Explain why the x-coordinates of the points where the graphs of the equations y = f(x) and

y = g(x) intersect are the solutions of the equation f(x) = g(x); find the solutions approximately, e.g., using technology to graph the functions, make tables of values, or find successive approximations. Include cases where f(x) and/or g(x) are linear, polynomial, rational, absolute value, exponential, and logarithmic functions.

Interpreting Functions          F-IF

Understand the concept of a function and use function notation.

F-IF.2 Use function notation, evaluate functions for inputs in their domains, and interpret statements that use function notation in terms of a context.

Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context.

F-IF.4 For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity.

F-IF.5 Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes. For example, if the function h(n) gives the number of person-hours it takes to assemble n engines in a factory, then the positive integers would be an appropriate domain for the function.

Analyze functions using different representations.

F-IF.7 Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases.

1. Graph polynomial functions, identifying zeros when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior.
2. Graph exponential and logarithmic functions, showing intercepts and end behavior, and trigonometric functions, showing period, midline, and amplitude.

F-IF.8 Write a function defined by an expression in different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain different properties of the function.

1. Use the process of factoring and completing the square in a quadratic function to show zeros, extreme values, and symmetry of the graph, and interpret these in terms of a context.

F-IF.9 Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a graph of one quadratic function and an algebraic expression for another, say which has the larger maximum.

Building Functions                                                                                                                            F-BF

Build a function that models a relationship between two quantities.

F-BF.1 Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities.

1. Determine an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context.
2. Combine standard function types using arithmetic operations. For example, build a function that models the temperature of a cooling body by adding a constant function to a decaying exponential, and relate these functions to the model.

F-BF.2 Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.

Build new functions from existing functions.

F-BF.3 Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, kf(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them.

F-BF.4 Find inverse functions.

1. Solve an equation of the form f(x) = c for a simple function f that has an inverse and write an expression for the inverse. For example, f(x) =2 x3 or f(x) = (x+1)/(x–1) for x ≠ 1.

Linear and Exponential Models                                                                                                      F-LE

Construct and compare linear, quadratic, and exponential models and solve problems.

F-LE.3 Observe using graphs and tables that a quantity increasing exponentially eventually exceeds a quantity increasing linearly, quadratically, or (more generally) as a polynomial function.

F-LE.4 For exponential models, express as a logarithm the solution to abct = d where a, c, and d are numbers and the base b is 2, 10, or e; evaluate the logarithm using technology.

Trigonometric Functions                                                                                                                  F-TF

Extend the domain of trigonometric functions using the unit circle.

F-TF.1 Understand radian measure of an angle as the length of the arc on the unit circle subtended by the angle.

F-TF.2 Explain how the unit circle in the coordinate plane enables the extension of trigonometric functions to all real numbers, interpreted as radian measures of angles traversed counterclockwise around the unit circle.

Model periodic phenomena with trigonometric functions.

F-TF.5 Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified amplitude, frequency, and midline.

Prove and apply trigonometric identities.

F-TF.8 Prove the Pythagorean identity sin2(θ) + cos2(θ) = 1 and use it to find sin(θ), cos(θ), or tan(θ) given sin(θ), cos(θ), or tan(θ) and the quadrant of the angle.

Congruence                                                                                                                           G-CO

Experiment with transformations in the plane

G-CO.1 Know precise definitions of angle, circle, perpendicular line, parallel line, and line segment, based on the undefined notions of point, line, distance along a line, and distance around a circular arc.

Prove geometric theorems

G-CO.9 Prove theorems about lines and angles. Theorems include: vertical angles are congruent; when a transversal crosses parallel lines, alternate interior angles are congruent and corresponding angles are congruent; points on a perpendicular bisector of a line segment are exactly those equidistant from the segment’s endpoints.

G-CO.10 Prove theorems about triangles. Theorems include: measures of interior angles of a triangle sum to 180°; base angles of isosceles triangles are congruent; the segment joining midpoints of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and half the length; the medians of a triangle meet at a point.

G-CO.11 Prove theorems about parallelograms. Theorems include: opposite sides are congruent, opposite angles are congruent, the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other, and conversely, rectangles are parallelograms with congruent diagonals.

Make geometric constructions

G-CO.12 Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods (compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, dynamic geometric software, etc.). Copying a segment; copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line.

Similarity, Right Triangles, & Trigonometry                                                                     G-SRT

Understand similarity in terms of similarity transformations

G-SRT.2 Given two figures, use the definition of similarity in terms of similarity transformations to decide if they are similar; explain using similarity transformations the meaning of similarity for triangles as the equality of all corresponding pairs of angles and the proportionality of all corresponding pairs of sides.

G-SRT.3 Use the properties of similarity transformations to establish the AA criterion for two triangles to be similar.

Prove theorems involving similarity

G-SRT.4 Prove theorems about triangles. Theorems include: a line parallel to one side of a triangle divides the other two proportionally, and conversely; the Pythagorean Theorem proved using triangle similarity.

G-SRT.5 Use congruence and similarity criteria for triangles to solve problems and to prove relationships in geometric figures.

Circles                                                                                                                                                            G-C

Understand and apply theorems about circles

G-C.1 Prove that all circles are similar.

G-C.2 Identify and describe relationships among inscribed angles, radii, and chords. Include the relationship between central, inscribed, and circumscribed angles; inscribed angles on a diameter are right angles; the radius of a circle is perpendicular to the tangent where the radius intersects the circle.

G-C.3 Construct the inscribed and circumscribed circles of a triangle, and prove properties of angles for a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle.

Find arc lengths and areas of sectors of circles

G-C.5 Derive using similarity the fact that the length of the arc intercepted by an angle is proportional to the radius, and define the radian measure of the angle as the constant of proportionality; derive the formula for the area of a sector.

Expressing Geometric Properties with Equations G-GPE

Translate between the geometric description and the equation for a conic section

G-GPE.1 Derive the equation of a circle of given center and radius using the Pythagorean Theorem; complete the square to find the center and radius of a circle given by an equation.

G-GPE.2 Derive the equation of a parabola given a focus and directrix.

Modeling with Geometry      G-MG

Apply geometric concepts in modeling situations

G-MG.3 Apply geometric methods to solve design problems (e.g., designing an object or structure to satisfy physical constraints or minimize cost; working with typographic grid systems based on ratios).

Interpreting Categorical and Quantitative Data                                                                            S-ID

Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable

S-ID.4 Use the mean and standard deviation of a data set to fit it to a normal distribution and to estimate population percentages. Recognize that there are data sets for which such a procedure is not appropriate. Use calculators, spreadsheets, and tables to estimate areas under the normal curve.

Making Inferences and Justifying Conclusions                                                                             S-IC

Understand and evaluate random processes underlying statistical experiments

S-IC.1 Understand statistics as a process for making inferences about population parameters based on a random sample from that population.

Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies

S-IC.3 Recognize the purposes of and differences among sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies; explain how randomization relates to each.

S-IC.4 Use data from a sample survey to estimate a population mean or proportion; develop a margin of error through the use of simulation models for random sampling.

S-IC.5 Use data from a randomized experiment to compare two treatments; use simulations to decide if differences between parameters are significant.

S-IC.6 Evaluate reports based on data.

Using Probability to Make Decisions           S-MD

Use probability to evaluate outcomes of decisions

S-MD.6 (+) Use probabilities to make fair decisions (e.g., drawing by lots, using a random number generator).

S-MD.7 (+) Analyze decisions and strategies using probability concepts (e.g., product testing, medical testing, pulling a hockey goalie at the end of a game).